Moscow is the capital city of Russia and its most populous establishment, and served as the major political, economic, cultural and scientific center from the Cold War up to the present day.
After dealing with the X-Men in Washington, Sebastian Shaw met with General Armivolkoff in Moscow, to apologize for his treatment at the hands of the Central Intelligence Agency at the Russian Military Retreat. Since America has already placed Jupiter Missiles outside of Turkey, Shaw suggests to Armivolkoff that they should retaliate by placing their own missile sites outside Cuba, where the American early warning system would not help. Armivolkoff ridicules this statement, suggesting they might as well declare war, to which the Hellfire Club appears, and forces him to reconsider his refusal.
In response to Russia's actions in placing nuclear missiles outside Cuba, the Americans retaliate by dispatching the Seventh Fleet to intercept the missile ships heading to Cuba. Armivolkoff then leaves to helm an address with Nikita Khrushchev and the KGB's main advisory board at their headquarters in Moscow, to advocate the placement of a Russian fleet outside Cuba to defend their missile ships in retaliation against America sending their own warships there.
The Sentinels had taken over Moscow, and most likely all of Russia, by the year 2023. During their travels to escape the Sentinels, Bishop, Colossus, Blink, Warpath, Iceman, Kitty Pryde and Sunspot rested here for an unknown period of time. Eventually they were discovered and 3 Sentinels were sent to kill them. Warpath, however, detected them and he and Blink alerted the others. After Kitty and Bishop left, the others prepared for battle. The Sentinels drilled their way in and attacked. They fought bravely to buy Kitty and Bishop time but were all eventually killed. When they discovered Kitty, the Sentinels were about to blast her but Bishop had changed the past and the group left before the Sentinels could discover them.